Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from renal tubular cells of a patient with Alport syndrome.

Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from renal tubular cells of a patient with Alport syndrome.

Alport syndrome (AS) is a hereditary disease that leads to kidney failure and is caused by mutations in the COL4A3, COL4A4, and COL4A5 genes that lead to the absence of collagen α3α4α5 (IV) networks in the mature kidney glomerular basement membrane. Approximately 80% of AS is X-linked because of mutations in COL4A5, the gene encoding the alpha 5 chain of type IV collagen.

To investigate the pathogenesis of AS at the genetic level, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from renal tubular cells of a patient with AS. The successful iPSC generation laid the foundation to master the repair of the COL4A5 gene and to evaluate the differentiation of iPSC into Sertoli cells and the accompanying epigenetic changes at each stage. The generation of iPSCs from AS patients not only confirms that iPSCs could be generated from renal tubular cells, but also provides a novel type of genetic therapy for AS patients. In this study, we generated iPSCs from renal tubular cells via ectopic expression of four transcription factors (Oct4, Sox2, c-myc, and Klf4).

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Bacteria DNA Preparation - Column Kit

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Description: Bacteria-Derived ATG3 Recombinant Protein

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Description: Bacteria-Derived Galactosidase Beta Purified

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According to the human embryonic stem cell (hESC) charter, iPSC formation was confirmed by comparatively analyzing hESC markers via colony morphology, immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR, flow cytometry, gene expression profiling of the three germ layers, and karyotyping. Our results demonstrated that iPSCs were similar to hESCs with regard to morphology, proliferation, hESC-specific surface marker expression, and differentiation into the cell types of the three germ layers.

The efficient generation of iPSCs from the renal tubular cells of an AS patient would provide a novel model to investigate the mechanisms underlying AS and to develop new treatments for AS.

Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from renal tubular cells of a patient with Alport syndrome.
Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from renal tubular cells of a patient with Alport syndrome.

The regulation of science and the Charter of Rights: would a ban on non-reproductive human cloning unjustifiably violate freedom of expression?

Non-Reproductive Human Cloning (NRHC) allows researchers to develop and clone cells, including non-reproductive cells, and to research the etiology and transmission of disease. The ability to clone specific stem cells may also allow researchers to clone cells with genetic defects and analyze those cells with more precisions. Despite those potential benefits, Parliament has banned such cloning due to a myriad of social and ethical concerns. In May 2002, the Canadian Government introduced Bill C-13 on assisted human reproductive technologies. Bill C-13 deals with both the scientific and the clinical use of human reproductive materials, and it prohibits a number of other activities, including NRHC. Although the Supreme Court of Canada has never ruled on whether scientific experiments area form of expression, academic support exists for this notion. The authors go through the legal analysis that would be required to find that scientific experiments are expression, focusing in part on whether NRHC could be considered violent and thus fall outside the protection of section 2(b). The latter question is complicated by the ongoing policy debate over whether an “embryonic cell” is property of human life. The authors then consider whether a ban on NRHC could be justified under section 1 of the Charter. They conclude that both the breadth of the legislative purpose and the proportionality of the measure are problematic. Proportionality is a specific concern because the ban could be viewed as an outright denial of scientific freedom of expression. Although consistent with current jurisprudence on freedom of expression, this paper runs against the flow of government policy in the areas of regulation and prohibition of non-reproductive human cloning. As there has been no Charter litigation to date on whether scientific research is a form of expression, the authors introduce a new way of looking at the legality of the regulation of new reproductive technologies.

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