Comparison and commutability study between standardized liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for aldosterone measurement in blood

  • A commutability confirmation test for the blood aldosterone measurement was performed on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) as a designated comparison method (DCM) and four chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) measurement procedures based on metrological traceability. A conventional radioimmunoassay (RIA) and two measurement procedures of CLEIA which obtains RIA equivalent values were also compared.
  • The relationship between the DCM value and the CLEIA value with respect to 120 pg/mL of the RIA value, which is the screening criterion of primary aldosteronism (PA) was clarified. For the correlation test, 75 samples of patient serum and plasma were used. Regression analysis revealed that the standardized LC-MS/MS and four CLEIA measurement procedures were in good agreement.
  • This is the effect of measurement specificity and calibration using by certified reference material (CRM). The median of the LC-MS/MS corresponding to 120 pg/mL of RIA was 48.5 pg/mL. In the mean of standardized four CLEIA values corresponding to the 48.5 pg/mL of LC-MS/MS value was 47.51 pg/mL and the standard deviation (SD) was 2.93 pg/mL. However, the correlation between the RIA value and the RIA equivalent of the two measurement procedures by CLEIA differed depending on the measurement procedure.
  • This is due to the influence of RIA measurement performance. Standardized CLEIA measurements are suitable for routine measurement procedure. When converting the LC-MS/MS equivalent value by the standardized CLEIA to the conventional RIA value, it is necessary to use the conversion formula.

Comparisons of plasma aldosterone and renin data between an automated chemiluminescent immunoanalyzer and conventional radioimmunoassays in the screening and diagnosis of primary aldosteronism

  • Determining values of plasma renin activity (PRA) or plasma active renin concentration (ARC), plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC), and aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR) is essential to diagnose primary aldosteronism (PA), but it takes several days with conventional radioimmunoassays (RIAs). Chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassays for PAC and ARC using the Accuraseed® immunoanalyzer facilitated the determination, but relations between Accuraseed® immunoanalyzer-based and RIA-based values in samples of PA confirmatory tests and adrenal venous sampling remained to be elucidated.
  • We addressed this issue in the present study. This is a prospective, cross-sectional study. ARC and PAC values were measured by the Accuraseed® immunoanalyzer in samples, in which PRA and PAC values had been measured by the PRA-FR® RIA and SPAC®-S Aldosterone kits, respectively. The relations between Accuraseed® immunoanalyzer-based and RIA-based values were investigated with regression analyses. The optimal cutoff of Accuraseed® immunoanalyzer-based ARR for PA screening was determined by the receiver operating characteristic analysis. After log-log transformations, linear relations with high coefficients of determination were observed between Accuraseed® immunoanalyzer-based and RIA-based data of renin and aldosterone.
  • Following the PA guidelines of Japan Endocrine Society, Accuraseed® immunoanalyzer-based cutoffs were calculated from the regression equations: the basal PAC for PA screening >12 ng/dL, PAC for the saline infusion test >8.2 ng/dL, ARC for the furosemide-upright test <15 pg/mL, and ARR for the captopril challenge test >3.09 ng/dL per pg/mL. The optimal cutoff of Accuraseed® immunoanalyzer-based ARR for PA screening was >2.43 ng/dL over pg/mL not to overlook bilateral PA patients. The present study provided conversion formulas between Accuraseed® immunoanalyzer-based and RIA-based values of renin, aldosterone, and ARR, not only in basal samples but also in samples of PA confirmatory tests and adrenal venous sampling. Although validation studies are awaited, the present study will become priming water of harmonization of renin and aldosterone immunoassays.

Development of a New Chemiluminescent Enzyme Immunoassay Using a Two-Step Sandwich Method for Measuring Aldosterone Concentrations

In the present study, we developed a new chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) using a two-step sandwich method to measure aldosterone concentrations. We investigated serum and plasma aldosterone concentrations in 75 blood samples from 27 patients using a radioimmunoassay (RIA) and the CLEIA (with current and newly improved reagents) as well as liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Based on the results of the Passing-Bablok regression analysis, the aldosterone levels measured using CLEIA with the new reagents and those measured by LC-MS/MS were found to be significantly correlated (slope, 0.984; intercept, 0.2).
However, aldosterone levels varied depending on the measurement method (i.e., CLEIA with the new reagent, CLEIA with the current reagent, and RIA). Aldosterone levels were lower with the improved CLEIA method than with RIA and CLEIA using the current reagent. Therefore, the cutoff values of the screening test as well as those of the confirmatory test for primary aldosteronism (PA) should be adjusted to follow current clinical practice guidelines for PA. The formula that can be used to obtain the aldosterone level (pg/mL) when using CLEIA with the new reagent is 0.765 × RIA (pg/mL) – 33.7. This formula will enable PA cutoff values to be set for provisional screening and confirmatory tests.

Novel chemiluminescent immunoassay to measure plasma aldosterone and plasma active renin concentrations for the diagnosis of primary aldosteronism

  • Determination of plasma aldosterone concentrations (PAC) and plasma active renin concentrations (ARC) is essential for the diagnosis of primary aldosteronism (PA). In Japan, although PAC and ARC are measured by radioimmunoassay and immunoradiometric assay, respectively, non-radioisotopic methods with better detection sensitivity, measurement accuracy, and technical simplicity are needed. We developed two-site sandwich chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassays (CLEIAs) to measure both PAC and ARC using monoclonal antibodies immobilized onto ferrite particles. The results of both assays are obtained simultaneously from a single plasma sample within 30 min using a fully automated system.
  • The novel CLEIAs were validated using plasma samples from patients with PA (n = 52) and essential hypertension (n = 23). The PAC determined by the CLEIA was significantly correlated with that measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry or conventional radioimmunoassay. The ARC determined by the CLEIA was significantly correlated with that measured by immunoradiometric assay. The limits of detection of the CLEIAs for PAC and ARC were 0.1 ng/dl and 0.04 pg/ml, respectively, which were better than those of conventional methods (PAC: 2.5 ng/dl; ARC: 5 pg/ml).
  • The PAC and PAC/ARC ratio (ARR) were significantly higher, and the ARC significantly lower, in patients with PA than in those with essential hypertension. An ARR cut-off of 1.31 ng/dl per pg/ml showed a sensitivity of 96.2% and specificity of 78.3% for PA screening. The newly developed CLEIAs for measuring PAC and ARC could provide a clinically powerful alternative to conventional methods used for hypertension screening in clinical practice.


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Feasibility of Screening Primary Aldosteronism by Aldosterone-to-Direct Renin Concentration Ratio Derived from Chemiluminescent Immunoassay Measurement: Diagnostic Accuracy and Cutoff Value.

<AbstractText>Aldosterone-to-plasma renin activity ratio (ARR) derived from traditional radioimmunoassay (RIA) is widely used to detect primary aldosteronism (PA). Recently, aldosterone-to-direct renin concentration ratio (ADRR), which is calculated by direct renin concentration (DRC) measured by chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA), is proposed to replace ARR as the screening test method for PA. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the diagnostic accuracy and cutoff value of ADRR as screening test for PA.</AbstractText><AbstractText>450 hypertensive patients with suspected PA referred to hypertension center of our department were enrolled and underwent screening and confirmatory tests of PA.
Plasma renin activity (PRA), DRC, and plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) were measured by both RIA and CLIA simultaneously during screening and confirmatory test.</AbstractText><AbstractText>386 patients were diagnosed as primary hypertension (PH) and 64 patients as PA. Within-patient correlation between PRA and DRC (r=0.88, P<0.001) and correlation between PAC measured by RIA and CLIA were high (r=0.80, P<0.001). The optimal cutoff value of ADRR was 2.93 (ng/dL)/(mU/L), sensitivity 80.33%, and specificity 92.11%. The optimal cutoff value of ARR was 25.28 (ng/dL)/(ng/mL/h), sensitivity 76.92%, and specificity 93.38%.</AbstractText><AbstractText>The optimal cutoff values of ADRR and ARR for screening PA are defined in this patient cohort with high sensitivity and specificity. Our results are of clinical importance for accelerating the extensive use of ADRR as a screening test for PA in daily practice.</AbstractText>

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